Computer networks form the basis of IT communication. They are used in different ways and can hold different types of network covers. A computer network is a collection of computers connected to each other to exchange information. Early examples of computer networks date back to the 1960s, but more than half a century later.
Two or more computers connected together for electronic data transmission. In addition to the physical connection of computers and communication devices, network systems play an important role in creating a suitable architecture where a variety of devices can transmit data without virtually any intervention.
The two most commonly used architectures are ISO Open System Interconnection (OSI) and IBM System Network Architecture (SNA).
The two main types of networks are Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs), Ethernet cable, optical fiber, Wi-Fi). A typical local network consists of two or more high-powered personal computers, printers, and disk storage devices called file servers that allow each computer in the network to access a common file.
The LAN operating system program interprets inputs and displays devices connected to the network and allows users to communicate with each other. Share printers and storage devices. At the same time, there is access to a central processing unit, data or program (instruction set).
What do Networks do?
Computer networks are used for many things through the exchange of information. And the network is used for the following purposes:
- Communicating using email, video, instant messaging and other methods
- Sharing devices such as printers, scanners and photocopiers
- Sharing files
- Sharing software and operating programs on remote systems
- Allowing network users to easily access and maintain information
Types of Network
There are many types of network connections depending on how the network components are connected to each other. Thanks to Ethernet that supports the Internet, local area networks, and wide area networks, topologies are used to connect curves to the most common computers, following are some of the topologies used to build the network:
In the Central Star topology, the hub connects cables to all computers in the networks. Each computer in the network connects independently to the center of the network and the disconnection does not affect the rest of the network. But there is one drawback: this type of network requires a large number of wires.
The cable connects network computers to the bus topology. Information about the last node of the network must go through each connected computer. You’ll need fewer cables, but if the cable is disconnected, it means your computer can’t connect to the network.
The ring topology is similar to the bus topology. Since the endpoints use a single cable connected to each other, the signal can go through the network to find the receiver. Although the network node does not work properly, it makes several attempts to find the signal target. In the center of the folded ring is a hub: the hub, router or switch The device has an internal ring topology and a place to connect the wires. Each computer in the network has its own cable to connect to the device. In the office, this probably means that all computers have a switch room and a cable room connected by a switch.
A network protocol is a language in which computing devices communicate. Protocols that support computer networks provide another way to identify and group them. The network can have multiple protocols and support each individual application. One of the most commonly used protocols is TCP/IP which is most commonly used on the Internet and home networks.
Wired and Wireless Networks
Many protocols can work on both wired and wireless networks. But in recent years, wireless technology has grown and become more popular. Wi-Fi and other wireless technologies have become desirable options for building computer networks. One reason for this is that wireless networks can easily support a wide variety of wireless devices such as smartphones and tablets that have gained popularity over the years. Mobile networks won’t go anywhere anytime soon, so it’s important to think now.
Key Networking Terms
- Open system: The open system is ready for online and information sharing.
- Closed system: Closed systems are not connected to the network and therefore cannot exchange information.
- IP (Internet Protocol) address: The network address of a system on a network (also known as a logical address).
- MAC address: The MAC address or physical address identifies each host in a unique way. Connected to NIC (Network Interface Card).
- Port: The channels for sending and receiving information.
- Nodes: The term used to refer to a computing device, such as a computer that transmits and receives network packets through a network.
- Network packets: Nodes and information from the network.
- Routers: The packet processing device, that determine where the information comes from and where it will be transmitted. Routers have routing protocols that specify how they will communicate with other routers.
- Network Address Translation (NAT): It’s a technology used by routers to provide Internet service to more devices with less common IP addresses. The router has a public IP address, but connected devices are assigned a private IP address that is not visible to other users outside the network.
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): Provides a dynamic IP address provided by the host ISP.
- Internet Service Providers (ISP): Companies that provide Internet access to individuals as well as businesses and other organizations.
Special devices such as switches, routers and access points form the backbone of a computer network. Switches connect and protect computers, printers, servers, and other devices in your home or work network. An access point is a switch that connects devices to a network without using cables.
Routers connect networks to other networks and act as distributors. Analyzes the data sent over the network and selects the best way to transfer it. Routers connect homes and businesses to the world and protect data from external security threats.
Switches and routers differ in different ways but one of the main differences is in how the latest devices can be identified. Level 2 switches uniquely identify devices by the “included” MAC address. Layer 3 routers uniquely define a network connection based on the device’s assigned IP address over the network.
Most modern keys have some routing function. Each Mac and IP address identifies the network connection of the device and the network individually. The MAC address is the number assigned to the Network Card (NIC) by the device manufacturer. An IP address is a number assigned to a network connection.
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